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Print Culture And The Modern World History Class 10 Most Likely And Most Important Questions

Print Culture and The Modern World Chapter Wise Important Questions Class 10 Social Science – History

2016

Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]

Question 1.
Which place(city) had the breakthrough of first printing press?
Answer:
Strasbourg, Germany had the breakthrough of the first printing press.

Question 2.
Mention the technique adopted to educate white-collar workers in Europe during the 19th century.
Answer:
The technique of lending libraries was adopted to educate the white collar workers in Europe during the 19th century.

Question 3.
Mention any one technique of preserving the manuscript in India.
Answer:
The manuscripts in India were preserved by pressing them between wooden covers or being sewn together.

Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]

Question 4.
Who brought the print-culture to Japan?
Answer:
Buddhist missionaries from China introduced print culture into Japan around 768-770 AD.

Question 5.
Why couldn’t the production of handwritten manuscripts satisfy the ever increasing demand for books? Give any three reasons.
Answer:
The ever increasing demand for books could not be satisfied by the production of handwritten manuscripts because of the following reasons.

  • Production of handwritten manuscripts was a tiresome work. Copying was time consuming, high priced and painful.
  • Manuscripts were delicate and difficult to handle.
  • It was not easy to carry the manuscripts everywhere.

Question 6.
Explain any three features of handwritten manuscripts before the age of print in India.only written content.
Answer:
The following were the features of the handwritten manuscripts before the age of print in India.

  • They were very popular and were produced in various vernacular languages.
  • They were produced on palm leaves or on handmade paper which were beautifully illustrated.
  • They were pressed between wooden covers or sewn together so that they can be preserved for long.

Question 7.
Explain any three factors responsible for the invention of new printing techniques.
Answer:
Factors responsible for the development of print technology were as follows.

  1. The production of handwritten manuscripts could not satisfy the ever increasing demand for books.
  2. Copying was an expensive, laborious and time consuming exercise.
  3. Manuscripts were fragile, difficult to handle and could not be cared for or read easily.
  4. Wood-block printing was popular but there was a need for quicker and cheaper reproduction of texts.

Question 8.
How were magazines different from novels? Write any three differences.
Answer:
Magazines were different from the novels in the following ways.

  1. Magazines had several stories along with varied contents. Novels presented just one story.
  2. Magazines were published periodically but the novels were published only once.
  3. The writers of the magazines could be several. Novel was written by one author.
  4. Magazines contained advertisements as compared to novels.
  5. Magazines had written as well as pictorial representations while novels had

Long Answer Type Questions [5 marks]

Question 9.
How did the knowledge of wood-block printing come to Europe? Explain.
Answer:
The knowledge of wood block printing came to Europe in the following ways.

  • Paper reached Europe in the 11th century from China through Silk Route. This made possible the production of manuscripts.
  • China already possessed the technology of wood-block printing. Travellers like Marco Polo brought this knowledge to Italy.
  • Now Italians began to produce books with this technology.
  • This increased the demand for books.
  • Soon it spread to other parts of Europe.

Question 10.
“Printing press played a major role in shaping the Indian society of the 19th century.” Analyse the statement.
Answer:
The printing press played the following role in shaping the Indian society of the 19th century.

  1. Print media opened an era of debates and discussions on various socio-religious issues. It spread many new ideas. All the ideas were accepted only after logical thinking rather than accepting blindly.
  2. Socio-religious reformers are able to spread their ideas against several evil religious customs such as sati, female infanticide etc. Example: Gulamgiri of Jyotiba Phule.
  3. In north India the Muslim saints, the Ulemas, used cheap lithographic presses to print the religious newspapers. They wrote against British policy of religious conversion and changing of the Muslim personal laws.
  4. Among Hindus, it encouraged the reading of religious texts.
  5. It connected communities and people in different parts of India.
  6. By converging news from one place to another, newspapers created pan-Indian identities.

2015
Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]

Question 11.
Name the Chinese traditional book, which was folded and stitched at the side.
Answer:
The Chinese traditional book, which was folded and stitched at the side, was known was accordion book.

Question 12.
Mention any one characteristic feature of the off-set press.
Answer:
One characteristic of the off-set press was that it could print up to six colours at a time.

Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]

Question 13.
In what three ways did the printed books at first closely resemble the written manuscripts?
Answer:
The printed books closely resembled the written manuscripts in the following ways.

  • Both printed books and manuscripts looked similar because metal letters imitated the ornamental handwritten style.
  • Like written manuscripts, the borders of printed books were also illuminated by hand with foliage and patterns were painted.
  • Both in written manuscripts and printed books, space for decoration was kept blank so that the buyer could choose their designs.

Question 14.
How did print bring the reading public and hearing public closer?
Answer:
Print brought the reading public and hearing public closer in the following ways.

  • Printing reduced the cost of books and multiple copies could now be produced easily. Books flooded in the market and led to the increase of reading public.
  • The literacy rate of Europeans was very low. Publishers reached out to people by making them listen to books being read out by a literate person. People gathered around the reader and listened.
  • To keep the hearing public intact, publishers published popular ballads and folktales. Oral culture thus found route into print. Printed material was orally transmitted, which blurred the line separating reading and hearing public.

Question 15.
Describe woodblock printing.
Answer:
Woodblock printing was a popular form of printing before the printing press was invented.

  • Books were printed books in China as early as 594 AD by rubbing paper against the inked surface of woodblocks.
  • Marco Polo brought this art to Europe, where it became very popular.
  • By the fifteenth century, woodblock printing was being used extensively in making textiles, cards, etc.

Question 16.
What was Protestant Reformation?
Answer:

  • Protestant Reformation was a movement dedicated to reform the Roman Catholic Church in the sixteenth century. Martin Luther was its chief preacher.
  • He wrote Ninety Five Theses criticizing many of the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church in 1517 in which he challenged the Church to debate his ideas.
  • This led to division of church and beginning of the Protestant Reformation.

Long Answer Type Questions [5 Marks]

Question 17.
What was the attitude of liberal and conservative Indians towards women’s reading? How did women like Kailashbhashini Debi respond to this in their writings?
Answer:
The following points sum up the attitude of liberal and conservative Indians towards women’s reading.

  • Liberal husbands and fathers began educating their womenfolk at home.
  • They sent them to schools when women’s schools were set up in the cities and towns after the mid-nineteenth century.
  • While conservative Hindus believed that a literate girl would be widowed, muslims feared that reading Urdu romances would corrupt Muslim women. Women like Kailashbhashini Debi responded to this in their writings in the following ways.
  • Lives and feelings of women began to be written in particularly vivid and intense ways. From the 1860s, a few Bengali women like Kailashbashini Debi wrote books highlighting the experiences of women.
  • Kailashbhashini wrote about how women were imprisoned at home, kept in ignorance, forced to do hard domestic labour and treated unjustly by the very people they served.

Question 18.
Explain with examples the role of print culture in the bringing of French Revolution.
Answer:
The following points show the role of print culture in the bringing of French Revolution.

  • Print popularised the ideas of the enlightenment thinkers. The writings of Voltaire and Rousseau were read widely.
  • These thinkers argued for the rule of reason rather than custom and demanded that everything should be judged through the application of reason and rationality.
  • Print created a new culture of dialogue and debate. All values, norms and institutions were re-evaluated and discussed by a public that had become aware of the power of reason and recognised the need to question existing ideas and beliefs.
  • By the 1780s, there was an outpouring of literature that mocked the royalty and criticised their morality. In the process, it raised questions about the,existing social order.
  • Print did not directly shape their minds, but it did open up the possibility of thinking differently.

2014
Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]

Question 19.
Name the first edition of the Indian religious text published in vernacular.
Answer:
This first edition of the Indian religious text published in vernacular was the Ramcharitmanas of Tulsidas.

Question 20.
Name the oldest Japanese book.
Answer:
The oldest Japanese book, printed in 868 AD, is the Buddhist Diamond Sutra.

Short Answer Type Questions [3 Mark]

Question 21.
Explain any three reasons which created a large number of new readers in the nineteenth century.
Answer:
The following were the three reasons which created a large number of new readers in the nineteenth century.

  • Primary education become compulsory from the late-nineteenth century and it made children an important category of readers. Production of school textbooks become an imperative for the publishing industry.
  • Reading and writing became popular among women. Penny magazines catered for women. There were manuals teaching proper behaviour and housekeeping which attracted women folk.
  • Lending libraries in England became instruments for educating white-collar workers, artisans and lower-middle class people. Self-educated working class people wrote for themselves too.

Question 22.
What were the limitations of written manuscripts in India? Explain.
Answer:
The following were the limitations of written manuscripts in India.

  • Manuscripts were very expensive and fragile. They had to be treated carefully and they were difficult to read as the script was written in different styles.
  • Manuscripts were not widely used in everyday life of the common populace. Even though pre-colonial Bengal had developed a vast network of village primary schools, students usually did not read texts.
  • Students only learnt to write. Teachers read out part of texts from memory and students wrote them down on paper. Students thus became literate without ever actually reading any kinds of texts.

Question 23.
Explain any three features of handwritten manuscripts before the age of print in India.
Answer:
The following were the three features of handwritten manuscripts before the age of print in India.

  • Manuscripts were copied on palm leaves or on handmade paper.
  • Pages were sometimes beautifully illustrated.
  • They would be either pressed between wooden covers or sewrt together to ensure preservation.
  • Manuscripts, however, were highly expensive and fragile. The had to be handled carefully and could not be read easily as the script was written in different styles.
  • They were written in different styles using vernacular language.

Long Answer Type Questions [5 Mark]

Question 24.
How had the earliest printing technology developed in the world? Explain with examples.
Answer:
The following points show the development of the earliest printing technology in the world.

  • The earliest kind of printing technology developed in China, Japan and Korea. This was a system of hand printing.
  • From AD 594 onwards, books in China were printed by rubbing paper against the inked surface of woodblocks. As both sides of the thin, porous sheet could not be printed, the traditional Chinese accordion book was folded and stitched at the side.
  • The imperial state in China was, for a very long time, the major producer of printed material. China possessed a huge bureaucratic syatem which recruited its personnel through civil services examination.
  • Textbooks for this examination were printed in vast numbers under the sponsorship of the imperial state. From the sixteenth century, the number of examination candidates went up and that increased the volume of print.
  • By the seventeenth century, as urban culture bloomed in China, the uses of print diversified.

Question 25.
What was the attitude of liberal and conservative Indians towards women’s reading? How did the women like Kailashbhashini Devi respond to this in their writings?
Answer:
Refer to answer 17.

2013
Short Answer Type Question [3 Marks]

Question 26.
Examine the role of missionaries in the growth of press in India.
Answer:
The following points sum up the role of missionaries in the growth of press in India.

  • The printing press first came to Goa with Portuguese missionaries in the mid-sixteenth century. Jesuit priests learnt Konkani and printed several tracts.
  • By 1674, about 50 books had been printed in the Konkani and in Kanara languages. Catholic priests printed the first Tamil book in 1579 at Cochin and in 1713 the first Malayalam book was printed by them.
  • By 1710, Dutch Protestant missionaries had printed 32 Tamil texts; many of them were translated from older works.

Long Answer Type Questions [5 Mark]

Question 27.
Martin Luther remarked, “Printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one.” Explain his remarks in the light of religious reforms that took place in Europe.
Answer:
Religious reforms that took place in Europe were as follows.

  • Martin Luther wrote Ninety Five Theses criticizing the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church. These were reproduced in large numbers and read by a large number of people.
  • This led to the division within the church into Catholics and Protestants.
  • This print brought about a new intellectual atmosphere, which helped in the spread of new ideas. This also paved the way for the reformation in the practices of the church.
  • The message in the Bible began to be reinterpreted.
  • Print encouraged people to think reasonably and question the customs followed in the Church, which enraged the Roman Catholics.

Question 28.
“Printing technology gave women a chance to share their feelings with the world outside.” Support the statement with any five suitable examples.
Answer:
Printing technology gave women a chance to share their feelings with the world outside. The following are the examples supporting the statement.

  • Rashundari Devi, a young married girl in a very orthodox household, learnt to read in the secrecy of her kitchen. Later she wrote her autobiography Amar Jiban which was published in 1876. It was the first full length autobiography in Bengali.
  • Many other women writers, like Kailashbhashini Debi, highlighted experiences of women like their imprisonment at home, ignorance and unjust treatment in their writings.
  • Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai narrated the plight of upper cast Hindu women, especially the widows.
  • Tamil writers expressed the poor status of women.
  • By the early twentieth century, journals written by women became popular, which highlighted issues like women’s education, widowhood and widow- remarriage. Some of them highlighted fashion lessons to women and entertainment through short storing and serialized novels.

2012
Short Answer Type Question [3 Marks]

Question 29.
How did new form of popular literature appear in print targeting new audience in the 18th century? Explain with examples.
Answer:
New forms of popular literature like almanacs, newspapers and journals, appeared in print targeting new audiences in the eighteenth century in the following ways.

  • Books could reach a wider population. Even those who disagreed with existing customers could express themselves through print.
  • Journals carrying views of women writes explained why women should be educated.
  • Novels carried themes related to women’s life and emotions. Such journals were often written and edited by women themselves.
  • With the expansion of compulsory education, children became important readers. A children’s press was devoted for children literature alone. It published old fairy tales and folk tales along with new works. Grimm Brothers spent years compiling folk tales. All that was considered unsuitable was not included.
  • Fictional narratives, poetic, autobioquaplies, anthologies and romantic plays were preferred by new readers.

2011
Short Answer Type Question [3 Marks]

Question 30.
How did print introduce debate and discussions? Explain any three points.
Answer:
Print introduced diverse reading material to masses, which they interprated in their own way and developed their own thoughts. This gave rise to debate and discussion in the following ways.

  • Varied opinions: People developed reasoning and hence began to debate on religious, social and economic issues. They developed different opinions. Social reformers offered a variety of interpretations of various beliefs and practices.
  • Shaped opinions: Published matter not only spread new deas and views but also shaped the nature of debate. A wider section of people could now participate in public discussion and express their views. New ideas emerged due to clash of opinions.
  • Social reforms: This was a time of intense controversies between social and religious reformers and orthodoxy over social customs and polities. People began to reason and discuss critically the established social and religious norms. Samachar Chandrika opposed the opinions of Raja Rammohan Roy, which were published in Sambad Kaumudi in 1821.

Long Answer Type Question [5 Marks]

Question 31.
“By the end of 19th century a new visual culture was taking shape.” Explain.
Answer:
The nineteenth century saw the new visual culture taking shape. It was because of following developments.

  • Along with the printed material, visual images could also be published and reproduced easily in multiple copies.
  • Painters like Raja Ravi Varma used print culture to produce images for mass circulation. Wood improvers began to be employed in print houses for making woodblocks.
  • People good at funny sketching developed cartoons and caricatures commenting on social and political issues. Some openly criticized imperial rule, western tastes and clothes which attracted large masses.
  • Mass production of visual images reduced the cost of production. Cheap prints and calendars were available in market and even the poor could buy to decorate the walls of their homes.
  • The new visual culture acquired distinctively Indian form and style, as artists began to depict scenes from Hindu religious mythology.

2010
Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]

Question 32.
Explain any three features of handwritten manuscripts before the age of print in India.
Answer:
Refer to answer 13.

Question 33.
Explain the effects of print culture in the religious sphere in early modern Europe.
Answer:
The following were the effects of print culture in the religious sphere in early modern Europe

  • It was apprehended that easier access to the printed and wider circulation of books could pollute people’s mind. People could turn rebellious and irreligious through would spread.
  • After reading the literature people developed the attitude towards reasoning, debate and discussion and began to challenge the existing norms of religion and society.
  • Because of criticizing practices and rituals of Roman Catholic Church, there was a division in religion—Catholics and Protestants.
  • Severe controls were imposed over publishers and booksellers for circulating heretical ideas.

2009
Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]

Question 34.
Who invented the printing press? How did he develop the printing technology?
Answer:
Johann Gutenberg, a German goldsmith, is credited with the invention of printing press.Having spent most of his childhood on a large agricultural estate, Gutenberg saw wine and olive presses. By and large, he learnt the art of polishing stones and acquired expertise in creating lead moulds. Using this knowledge, he adopted the existing technology to design his innovation. The olive press became the base model for the printing press and moulds were used for casting metal types for alphabet. By 1448, he had perfected this system, which led to the development of printing technology.

Long Answer Type Question [5 Marks]

Question 35.
How did a new reading public emerge with the printing press? Explain.
Answer:

  • With the advent of printing press, a new reading public emerged. The books became cheaper as printing technology reduced the cost of production.
  • As books flooded the market, readership increased and books now reached to larger number of people.
  • Access to books created a new reading culture. Earlier reading was restricted to the elite only—common people lived in world of word culture who heard sacred text read out to them or ballads recited or folk tales narrated.
  • Now a reading public came into being. But book could be read only by literate people, keeping this point of view, printers published popular ballads and folk tales with a lot of pictures, which could be read to illiterate public. These ballads and tales could then be sung or read out to those who could not read.
  • Thus, printed material could be orally transmitted at gatherings and taverns. Reading public and hearing public thus got intermingled.