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Nationalism In India History Class 10 Most Likely And Most Important Questions

Nationalism in India Chapter Wise Important Questions Class 10 Social Science – History

We have collected these questions year wise and marks wise.

2016

Nationalism in india class 10 important questions Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]

Question 1.
Who had designed the ‘Swaraj Flag’ by 1921? Explain the main features of the ‘Swaraj Flag’.
Answer:
By 1921, Gandhiji had designed the Swaraj Flag. The main features of this flag were as follows.

  • It was a tricolour (saffron, green and white).
  • It had a spinning wheel in the centre, representing the Gandhian ideal of self-help.

Question 2.
‘The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-Cooperation Movement.’ Support the statement with examples.
Answer:
The Civil Disobedience Movement differed from the Non-Cooperation Movement in the following ways.
2018-02-03 13_12_52-Ch-3.pdf - Foxit PhantomPDF

Question 3.
What type of flag was designed during the Swadeshi Movement’ in Bengal? Explain its main features.
Answer:

  • During the ‘Swadeshi Movement’ in Bengal, a tricolour flag (red, green and yellow) was designed.Nationalism in India 39
  • It had eight lotuses, representing eight provinces of British India.
  • It also had a crescent moon, representing Hindus and Muslims.

Question 4.
‘The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj.’ Support the statement with arguments.
Answer:
The plantation workers in Assam had their own understanding of Mahatma Gandhi and the notion of Swaraj. This statement can be supported by the following arguments.

  • For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant right to move freely in and out of the confined space in which they were enclosed, and to retain a link with the native village.
  • When they heard of the Non-Cooperation Movement thousands of workers left the plantations and headed home.
  • They believed that Gandhi Raj meant that they would be given land in their own villages.
    However, due to steamer and railway strike, thousands were stranded on the way. .

Question 5.
Why did different social groups join the Civil Disobedience Movement. Explain.
Answer:
Different social groups joined the Civil Disobedience Movement. Three of them are listed below.

  • Rich peasant communities like Patidars of Gujarat and Jats of Uttar Pradesh – joined the movement because, being producers of commercial crops, they were hard-hit by depression and falling prices. For them, Swaraj meant struggle against high revenues.
  • Poor peasants joined the struggle because they found it difficult to pay the rent. They wanted the unpaid rent to be remitted.
  • Rich business classes were against colonial policies which restricted trade. They joined the movement because they wanted protection against import of foreign goods. They thought that Swaraj would cancel colonial restrictions and trade would flourish without constraints.

Question 6.
Simon Commission was greeted with slogan ‘Go Back Simon’ at arrival in India. Support this reaction of Indians with arguments
Answer:

  • Simon Commission was to look into the functioning of the constitutional system in India and suggest changes. The Commission tjid not have a single Indian member. They were all British. According to Indians, the commission did not hold any hopes for further constitutional reforms.
  • Simon Commission arrived in India in 1928. It was greeted with the slogan ‘Go Back Simon’ and black flags.
  • All parties including the Congress and Muslim League, participated in the demonstrations.

Long Answer Type Questions [5 Marks]

Question 7.
Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act of 1919? How was it organized?
Answer:
Gandhiji decided to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act of 1919 because of the following reasons.

  • In 1919, Rowlatt Act was hurriedly passed by the Imperial Legislative Council.
  • Indian members unitedly opposed it.
  • The Act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.
  • The Act deprived the Indians of their civil rights.
    It was organised in the following ways:
  • Gandhiji wanted a non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws.
  • It started with hartal on 6th April 1919.
  • Rallies were organised in various cities in India.
  • Workers in the railway work shop went on strike.
  • Shops were closed down in protest.

Question 8.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi find in ‘salt’ a powerful symbol that could unite the nation? Explain.
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi found in ‘salt’ a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.

  • On 31 January 1930, he sent a letter to the Viceroy Irwin, stating eleven demands. The most important demand was to abolish the salt tax.
  • Salt is consumed by all sections of the society, by the rich and the poor alike.
  • It is one of the most essential items of food.
  • Mahatma Gandhi declared that tax on salt and government monopoly
    over its production was the most oppressive step taken by the British government.
  • Mahatma Gandhi choose salt because all sections of the society could identify with it and everyone could be brought into a united struggle.

Question 9.
How did variety of cultural processes play an important role in making nationalismin India. Explain with examples.
Answer:
Variety of cultural processes played an important role in making of nationalism , in India in the following ways:

  • The sense of collective belonging inculcated the spirit of nationalism among the people. History and fiction, folklore and songs and popular prints and symbols played an important part in the making of nationalism.
  • Bharat mata as identity of the nation: In the twentieth century, various images of Bharat mata, came to light. It represented India. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, who had written Vande mataram as a hymn dedicated to the motherland, created the first image of Bharat mata. Abanindranath Tagore portrayed Bharat mata, as a calm, composed and spiritual figure. It was influenced by the Swadeshi movement.
  • Folklore to restore a sense of pride: Rabindranath Tagore revived folk songs, folk tales, hymns, legends and stories. In Madras, Natesa Sastri published a collection of Tamil folktales the Folklore of southern India.
  • Flags as identity of the Nation: During the Swadeshi Movement flags were carried to create a sense of national belonging. Carrying the flag and holding it aloft during marches became a symbol of defiance.
  • Reinterpretation of History: Another means of creating a feeling of nationalism was through reinterpretation of history. Many Indians wrote about the glorious developments in ancient times, when art and architecture, mathematics and science flourished. They urged the readers to take pride in their glorious past.

Question 10.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi decide to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi decided to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement because of the following reasons.

  • The British got worried by the developments of Civil Disobedience Movement ‘ and started the arrest of various top Congress leaders.
  • This led to violent clashes in many parts of the country.
  • When Abdul Ghaffar Khan was arrested from Peshawar, angry crowd demonstrated in the streets facing armoured cars and police firing many were killed.
  • The arrest of Gandhiji led to the attacks on police force, municipal buildings and law courts by industrial workers in Sholapur.
  • Colonial government got frightened and responded with the policy of brutal repression.
  • At many places, Satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten and about one lakh people were arrested. It was under these circumstances, Gandhiji called off the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Question 11.
Why did Mahatma Gandhi relaunch the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension? Explain.
Answer:
Gandhiji relaunched the Civil Disobedience Movement with great apprehension because of the following reasons.

  • The negotiations at the second Round Table conference in London ended in a failure.
  • Back in India, the government had again begun the cycle of repression.
  • Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Jawaharlal Nehru were in jail.
  • Congress was declared an illegal organisation.
  • A series of measures had been imposed to prevent meetings, demonstrations and boycotts. For over a year, the movement continued, but by 1934, it lost its momentum.

Question 12.
How did Civil Disobedience Movement come into force in various parts of the country? Explain with examples.
Answer:
The different social groups which participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement were:

  • In the countryside, the rich peasant communities like Patidars of Gujarat and Jats of Uttar Pradesh took active part in the movement. They were hard hit by trade depression and falling prices and were unable to pay the governments revenue demand. For them Swaraj meant struggle against high revenue.
  • As depression continued poor peasantry found it difficult to pay the rent. They joined a variety of radical movements often led by socialists and communists.
  • Indian merchants and industrialists resented colonial policies which restricted trade. They were against imports of foreign goods. When the civil disobedience movement was first launched, they gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported cloth. To organise business interests, they formed the Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
  • Some workers participated in the movement with their selective approach adopted from Gandhian ideas to protest against low wages and poor working conditions. There were strikes by railway workers and dockyard workers. Thousands of workers in Chotanagpur tin mines wore Gandhi caps and participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns.
  • Women joined the Civil Disobedience Movement in large number. They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.

Question 13.
How had Non-Cooperation Movement spread in cities? Explain.
Answer:
The Non-Cooperation Movement started in December 1920. People from various social groups participated in the movement.

  • The movement started with the participation of middle-class in the cities. Thousands of students left the government-controlled schools and colleges, teachers resigned and lawyers gave up their practice. It was to be a non¬violent movement.
  • In Awadh, peasants movement started against talukdars and landlords who demanded high rents and other cesses from peasants.
  • In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement started in the early 1920. It was started against the colonial government, which had closed large forest gates, preventing people from entering the forests to graze their cattle or to collect firewood and fruits.
  • For plantation workers in Assam, freedom meant the right to move freely in and out of their confined place, which was not permitted under the Inland Emigration Act of 1859.
  • In many places, nai-dobhi bandhs were organised to deprive landlords of the services of barbers and washerman.

Question 14.
How did the ‘First World War’ create new economic and political situations in India? Explain with examples.
Answer:
The First World War created a new economic and political situation and posed the following problems in India.

  • It led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by increasing taxes on Indians.
  • Custom duties were raised and income tax was introduced.
  • Continuous price rise caused extreme hardship to the common people.
  • Villagers were called upon to supply soldiers by forced recruitment in rural areas which caused widespread anger. All this was aggravated by failure of crop and famine.
  • Between 1918 and 1921 crops failed, which further aggravated the anger.
  • Shortage of essential commodities was the natural outcome of war as industries were geared to produce goods to fulfil war needs.

Question 15.
How had Non-Cooperation Movement spread to the countryside? Explain.
Answer:
Non-Cooperation Movement began in December 1920. It spread to the countryside in the following ways.

  • In Awadh, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra. Here, the movement was against talukdars, who charged high rents and peasants had to do begar.
  • The peasant movement demanded reduction of revenue and abolition of begar. By the end of 1920, Jawaharlal Nehru, Baba Ramchandra and others had formed Oudh Kisan Sabha. So after the beginning of the Non- Cooperation.Movement, Congress wanted to integrate the *Awadh peasants struggle into a wider struggle.
  • Tribal peasants interpreted the message of Gandhiji and idea of swaraj in their own way. In Gudem Hills in Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement was organised against colonial oppression under the leadership of Alluri Sitaram Raju. He was inspired by the Non-Cooperation Movement.
  • The Gudem rebels attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried on guerrilla warfare for achieving swaraj.
  • The movement also spread among the plantation workers in Assam. They were not permitted to leave the tea gardens without permission.

2015

Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]

Question 16.
Why did Mahatma Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act? Explain any three reasons.
Answer:
Refer to answer 7

Question 17.
“The Congress was reluctant to include the demands of industrial workers in its programme of struggle.” Analyse the reasons.
Answer:

  • Congress wanted to include the demands of the masses as a whole and not a particular group or class.
  • If the demand of the workers were included, then industrialists would get offended. The industrialists were supporting the Congress financially. The Congress did not want to alienate the industrialists and create anti-imperialist feelings.
  • A big portion of the Congress membership and funding came from industrialists apd small businessmen.

Question 18.
Why did the Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slow down in the cities? Explain.
Answer:
The Non-Cooperation Movement slowed down in the cities for various reasons.

  • Khadi cloth was often more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it. So people could not boycott mill cloth for very long.
  • Similarly boycotting British institutions also posed a problem as there were no alternative national institutions to fulfil the educational needs.
  • The students and teachers trickled to government schools. The lawyers joined government courts.
    With all these, the enthusiasm of people in the cities lost its force.

Question 19.
Why did Mahatma Gandhiji decide to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement in February 1922? Explain the reasons.
Answer:
Gandhiji withdrew the Non-Cooperation Movement in February 1922 because of the following reasons.

  • Gandhiji felt the movement was turning violent at many places and the satyagrahis needed to be properly trained before they would be ready for the mass struggle.
  • Within the Congress some leaders were by now tired of mass struggles and wanted to participate in the elections to the provincial councils set up after by the Government of India Act 1919.
  • The final blow however came after the violent incident in Chauri Chaura in 1922 when a violent mob burnt a police station killing many policemen. Immediately after that, Gandhiji called off the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Question 20.
Describe the main features of ‘Poona Pact’.
Answer:
At the second Round Table conference, Dr BR Ambedkar demanded separate electorates for dalits. When the British conceded Dr Ambedkar’s demand, Gandhiji, who was opposed to this, went on a fast unto death. He believed that separate electorates for dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society.Ambedkar ultimately accepted Gandhiji’s position by signing a pact in 1932, known as the Poona Pact. The Poona Pact gave the depressed classes reserved seats in the provincial and legislative councils but they were to be voted by general electorate.

Question 21.
How did Salt March become an effective tool of resistance against colonialism? Explain.
Answer:
Salt became an effective tool of resistance against colonialism because of the following reasons:

  • Gandhiji found in salt a powerful bond that would unite the nations as it – was consumed by all rich and poor alike.
  • Gandhiji’s letter to Viceroy Irwin stated eleven demands. Most of them were of general interest but the most stirring was to abolish the salt tax imposed by the colonial government.
  • Irwin’s unwillingness to negotiate forced Gandhiji to start his salt March which was joined by thousands. It developed the feeling of nationalism.
  • People in different parts of the country broke salt law and manufactured salt and demonstrated infront of government salt factories.
  • People unitedly followed Gandhiji’s words. They refused to pay taxes, revenues, picketed liquor shops, boycotted foreign clothes, resigned from government jobs violated forest laws.

Question 22.
Describe the spread of Non-cooperation Movement in the country side.
Answer:
Refer to answer 15

Question 23.
Describe any three major problems faced by the peasants of Awadh in the days of Non-Cooperation Movement.
Answer:
Major problems faced by the peasants of Awadh were:

  • The landlords and talukdars of Awadh demanded exorbitantly high land rent and a number of other cesses from the peasants.
  • The peasants were compelled to do begar, that is, they had to work at landlord’s farm without payment.
  • As tenants, the peasants had no security of tenure and were often evicted from their land, they could not acquire any right over the leased land.

Question 24.
How could non-cooperation become a movement? Give your opinion.
Answer:
Non-cooperation became a movement in the following ways.

  • The idea of non-cooperation was first introduced by Gandhiji in his book Hind Swaraj, where he declared that since the British had establised their rule in India with the cooperation of the Indians, it would collapse only when the cooperation was withdrawn.
  • Initially non-cooperation was to start in stages with the surrender of British honours and titles, boycott of British offices, institutions and foreign goods followed by civil disobedience campaign. Finally at Nagpur session of Congress in 1920, the programme of Non-Cooperation was adopted.
  • In case the government used repressive methods, a full scale Civil Disobedience campaign would then be launched.
  • At the same time Gandhiji and Shaukat Ali began touring and mobilising support for the movement.

Question 25.
How did the industrialists relate to the Civil Disobedience Movement? Analyse their role.
Answer:

  • During the First World War, Indian merchants and industrialists made huge profits and emerged as a powerful section. They opposed colonial policies that restricted business activities because they wanted to expand their business.
  • They formed Indian Industrial and Commercial Congress in 1920 and the Federation of the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FICCI) in 1927.
  • They supported the Civil Disobedience Movement when it was launched and attacked colonial control over the Indian economy.
  • They gave financial assistance and refused to buy or sell imported goods. Most businessmen came to see swaraj as a time when colonial restrictions on business would no longer exist and trade and industry would flourish without constraints
  • Eminent businessmen like Purshotamdas, Thakurdas and GD Birla also came in support of the Civil Disobedience Movement.

Question 26.
Explain the circumstances which compelled Mahatma Gandhi to call off the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1930.
Answer:
Refer to answer 19

Question 27.
How did women participate in Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.
Answer:
One of the most important features of the Civil Disobedience Movement was the large-scale participation of women. They participated in the movement in the following ways.

  • During Gandhiji’s salt satyagraha, thousands of women came out of their homes and engaged themselves in various activities.
  • They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt and picketed shops selling foreign goods, liquor, etc.
  • Many of them were arrested and went to jail.
  • In urban areas, women from high-caste families whereas in rural areas women from the rich peasant households, inspired by Gandhiji’s call, regarded service to the nation as a sacred duty.

Long Answer Type Questions [5 Marks]

Question 29.
Explain any five major problems posed by the First World War in India.
Answer:
Refer to answer 14

Question 30.
How did the Non-Cooperation Movement spread in cities across the country? Explain its effects on the economic front.
Answer:

  • The Non-Cooperation Movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges, the teachers resigned and the lawyers gave up their lucrative practices.
  • The council elections were boycotted in most provinces. Shops selling foreign goods were picketed and foreign goods boycotted.
    The effects of non-cooperation on the economic front were extensive.
  • Boycotting of foreign goods, liquor and clothes hit the colonial economy.
    Value of foreign goods dropped. The import of foreign cloth dropped significantly between 1921 and 1922.
  • At many places merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade.
  • As the movement spread, people began to discard imported clothes and started to wear khadi and other homemade clothes. This promoted Indian textile mills and the production of handloom went up

Question 31.
Describe the incident and impact of the Jallianwalla Bagh.
Answer:
On 13 April, a crowd of villagers gathered in an enclosed ground of Jallianwalla Bagh near Amritsar. These people came there to attend a fair and were unaware of the current political situation or about the martial law imposed by the military governor General Dyer. Dyer entered the ground, blocked the exit points and opened fire on the innocent crowd, killing hundreds. This incident is referred to as the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre. General Dyer declared that his main aim was to produce a moral effect and to create a feeling of terror and awe in the mind of the satyagrahis.This incident proved to be a turning point in the Indian national movement. As the news of Jallianwalla Bagh massacre spread, crowds took to streets in many towns in North India. There were strikes and clashes with police and attacks on government buildings.The government responded with brutal repression. Innocent people were humiliated and terrorised. People were flogged and villages were burnt for no reason. The national leaders were shocked at this inhumane treatment with fellow Indians and pledged to protest.Mahatma Gandhi now felt the need to launch a more broad-based movement in India. Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movements were started after a few months. The main aim of these movements was to protest against Jallianwalla Bagh incident and demand swaraj.

Question 32.
Describe the developments which led to the launching of Non-Cooperation Movement.
Answer:
The developments that led to the launching of Non-Cooperation Movements were as follows.

  • In 1916, Gandhiji travelled to Champaran in Bihar to inspire peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system.
  • In 1917, he organised satyagraha to support the peasants of Kheda in Gujarat.
  • In 1918, he organised satyagraha for cotton mill workers in Ahmedabad.
  • In 1919, nationwide satyagraha was launched against Rowlatt Act.
  • Passing of the Rowlatt Act leading to unrest among Indians and arrest of prominent leaders made Gandhiji launch the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Question 33.
Describe the significance of the Civil Disobedience Movement in the freedom Struggle of India.
Answer:
The Civil Disobedience Movement was unique and significant in many ways.

  • Unlike the Non-Cooperation Movement, the satyagrahis in the movement broke various colonial laws.
  • This was a more successful and widespread mass movement. Thousands of people in different parts of the country broke salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government offices and factories.
  • The peasants refused to pay revenue and chaukidari taxes. Officials in villages resigned and forest people violated forest laws.
  • In this movement, the satyagrahis displayed immense courage and sincerity. Despite the oppression of colonial government, they did not resort to violence and bravely courted arrests. All Congress leaders were arrested but this could not break the morale of the people.
  • Another significant feature of the movement was the increased participation of women. Thousands of women came out of their comfortable life at home to participate in the mass movement. They demonstrated courage and determination, broke salt laws and manufactured salt, picketed shops selling foreign goods and organised various other activities.In the Civil Disobedience Movement, the business and industrial class also supported the national leaders by financial assistance and participated in Khadi movement.

2014

Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]

Question 34.
Explain the idea of Satyagraha according to Gandhiji.
Answer:

  • Satyagraha emphasised on the power of truth and the need to search for ‘ truth.
  • It was a novel method of protesting through mass agitation, without the use of force, the oppressor could be persuaded to see the truth and it will ultimately triumph.
  • It suggested that in a struggle against injustice, if the cause is right, there was no need for aggression or physical force. Victory could be won by appealing to the conscience of the oppressor.

Question 35.
Describe any three suppressive measures taken by the British administration to clamp down on nationalists.
Answer:
Mahatma Gandhi wanted non-violent civil disobedience movement against the Rowlatt Act which would start with a hartal on 6 April.Alarmed by the popular upsurge, the British administration decided to clamp down on nationalists.

  • Local leaders were picked up from Amritsar.
  • Gandhiji was barred from entering Delhi.
  • On 10 April, the police in Amritsar opened fire upon a peaceful procession which led to widespread attack on banks, post offices and railway stations. Martial law was imposed and General Dyer took command.

Question 36.
Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919. Explain.
Answer:
Refer to answer 7

Question 37.
Describe the main features of the ‘Salt March’.
Answer:
The main features of the ‘Salt March’ were:

  • Gandhiji started the historic Dandi March (Salt March) from Sabarmati Ashram, (Ahmedabad) accompanied by 78 trusted volunteers.
  • The distance from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi, a coastal town on the coast of Gujarat was 240 miles.
  • The volunteers walked for 24 days, 10 miles a days.
  • Thousands of people came to hear Gandhiji. The explained the meaning of Swaraj to them.
  • On 6th April, he reached Dandi, violated the salt law and manufactured salt by boiling sea water.

Question 38.
Why did the Non-Cooperation movement slow down in the cities? Explain.
Answer:
Refer to answer 18

Question 39.
Describe the role of merchants and industrialists in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer:
Refer to answer 25

Long Answer Type Questions [5 Marks]

Question 40.
How could non-cooperation become a movement? Explain with examples.
Answer:
Most of the movements are issue-specific movements that seek to achieve a single objective within a limited time frame. The main issue was to support Khilafat, as well as swaraj.Gandhiji proposed that the movement should start in stages. It should begin with the surrender of titles, boycott of civil services, army, police courts and legislative councils, schools and foreign goods.The Non-cooperation Khilafat Movement began in January 1921. The movement started with middle class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left schools and colleges, lawyers gave up their practice. Council elections were boycotted in most provinces.Non-Cooperation had all the characteristics of a movement.

  • It had a specific issue i.e. it was started in support of Khilafat and Swaraj.
  • It could not achieve its direct objective. However, it was very successful on the economic front. The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921-1922 and its value dropped from ? 102 crore to ? 57 crore.
  • It was short lived. Gandhiji called a halt to the Non-Cooperation Movement after the Chauri-Chaura incident when police station was set on fire in 1922.
  • Non-Cooperation also had a clear cut leadership. It was organised under the leadership of Gandhiji.

Question 41.
How did different social groups participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain with examples.
Answer:
Refer to answer 12

Question 42.
Explain with examples the role of industrialists in the freedom struggle of India.
Answer:
Refer to answer 25

Question 43.
How did different social groups conceive the idea of Non-cooperation? Explain with examples.
Answer:

  • In Awadh, peasants were led by Baba Ramchandra, a sanyasi who had earlier been to Fiji as indentured labourer. Here, the movement was against talukdars and landlords who demanded very high rents, and cesses from the peasants. They had to perform begar in landlords farms. They had no right over leased land. When the Non-Cooperation Movement started, the houses of talukdars and landlords were looted. In many place local leaders told the peasants that Gandhiji had said no taxes were to be paid and land was to be redistributed among the peasants.
  • Tribal peasants of Andhra Pradesh interpreted the message of Gandhiji in a different way. They were led by Alluri Sitaram Raju. The government had closed large forest areas, preventing the tribals from entering forest to gaze their cattle. They were dependent on forests for food, fuel and trails. The militant movement had begun to resist repressive measures of the colonisers. The tribals became violent and attacked police stations.
  • For plantation workers in Assam, Swaraj had a very different notion. For them freedom meant to move in and out of the confined place. The workers believed that Gandhi raj was coming and everyone would be given land in their village. So, they defied the authorities, left the plantations and headed home.

Question 44.
How did people belonging to different communities, regions or languages develop a sense of collective belonging? Explain with examples.
Answer:
Refer to answer 9

Question 45.
Explain the impact of Jallianwallah Bagh incident on the people.
Answer:

  • As the news of the Jallianwallah Bagh spread, the crowds took to streets in many towns of North India.
  • There were strikes, clashes with the police and attack on government buildings.
  • The government reciprocated with brutal repression to terrorise the people.
  • Satyagrihis were forced to rub their noses on the ground, crawl on the streets and do salaam to all officers.
  • People were flogged and villages around Gujranwala in Punjab (now in Pakistan) were bombed.

Question 46.
Explain the effects of Non-Cooperation Movement on the economic front.
Answer:
The effects of the Non-cooperation Movement on the economic front were

  • The import of foreign cloth halved between 1921 and 1922 and its value dropped from 102 crores to 57 crores.
  • Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.
  • In many places traders and merchants refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign goods.
  • As the boycott movement spread people refused to wear imported clothes and wore only Indian ones.
  • Production of Indian textiles and handlooms went up.

Question 47.
How did different social groups participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain with examples.
Answer:
Refer to answer 12

Question 48.
How did peasants of Awadh used different methods to achieve their goal? Explain.
Answer:
The peasants of Awadh were led by Baba Ramchandra. The following methods were used to achieve their goals:

  • They raised their demand for reduction of revenue, abolition of begar and security of land tenure. They took to social boycott of oppressive landlords.
  • In many places, the panchayats organised nai-dhobi bands to deprive the landlords of basic services of barber and washermen.
  • Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up with more than 300 branches in the villages around Awadh.

2013

Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]

Question 49.
How had the First World War created a new economic situation in India? Explain with three examples.
Answer:
Refer to answer 14

Question 50.
How was Rowlatt Act opposed by the people in India? Explain with examples.
Answer:
The Rowlatt Act was opposed by Indians in the following ways:

  • A non-violent civil disobedience against the unjust law began.
  • There were hartals and rallies organised in the whole of the country.
  • Workers in the railway workshops went on strike.
  • Shops were closed down in protest.

Question 51.
‘Some of the Muslim political organizations in India, were lukewarm in their response to ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’. Examine the statement.
Answer:
When Gandhiji called the Civil Disobedience Movement, Muslims were lukewarm in their response due to

  • The disappointment with Non-Cooperation Movement and how it ended without any concrete outcome.
  • The Congress had become visibly associated with the Hindu nationalist groups like the Hindu Mahasabha, making large sections of Muslims feel alienated.
  • The relations between Hindus and Muslims worsened as each community began organising religious processions.
  • In 1927 the Congress and Muslim League tried to negotiate a compromise, but some important differences remained unsolved.
  • Muslim leaders were concerned about the minority status of Muslims in India. Negotiations over the question of representation continued but all hopes of resolving the issue at the All Party Conference disappeared, when Hindu Mahasabha strongly opposed efforts at compromise.So when Civil Disobedience began, there was an atmosphere of distrust and suspicion among the communities and Muslim response was lukewarm.

Question 52.
‘Nationalism spreads when people begin to believe that they are all part of the same nation.’ Justify the statement.
Answer:
The three attributes of a nation, according to Renan are:

  • A nation is formed when there is a long past of sacrifices and devotion.
  • A national ideas comes into existence when there is a heroic past, glory and great men. It is the foundation of nation building.
  • The people should have the will to work together for a common goal. All these factors give rise to nationalism because people feel they are part of a same nation.

Question 53.
Explain any three measures taken by the British administration to repress the movement started against the Rowlatt Act.
Answer:
Following were the measures taken by the British administration to repress the movement started against the Rowlatt Act:

  • Alarmed by the popular upsurge, British decided to clamp down on nationalists.
  • Local leaders were arrested and Gandhiji was baned from entering Delhi.
  • There were firing on peaceful procession.
  • Seeing the situation out of control, Martial law was imposed, (any three)

Question 54.
Which were the two types of demands mentioned by Gandhiji in his letter to Viceroy Irwin on 31 January 1930? Why was the abolition of ‘salt tax’ most stirring demand? Explain.
Answer:
On 31 January 1930, Gandhiji wrote a letter to Lord Irwin, stating eleven demands. Some of the demands were of general nature, others were more specific demands from industrialists to peasants. They were wide ranging demands, so that all classes could identify with them and they could be brought under the common campaign. The most stirring demand was to abolish salt tax. Salt is item of food, consumed by all sections of the society. It is one of the most essential food item. The tax on salt and government monopoly over its production, showed the most oppressive face of British rule.

Question 55.
Explain any three reasons for the slow down of Non-Cooperation Movement in Cities.
Answer:
Refer to answer 18

Question 56.
Explain the effects of ‘worldwide economic depression’ on India, towards late 1920s.
Answer:
The effects of worldwide economic depression were:

  • There was a fall in agricultural prices from 1926 and it collapsed after 1930.
  • As the demand for agricultural goods fall and exports declined, peasants found it difficult to sell their harvest and pay the revenue.
  • In the countryside, rich peasant communities were the producers of commercial crops. They were hard hit by trade depression and falling prices. By 1930, the countryside was in turmoil.

Question 57.
Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act? Explain any three reasons.
Answer:
Refer to answer 7

Question 58.
Why did Gandhiji relaunch the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’? Explain any three reasons.
Answer:
Refer to answer 11

Question 59.
How did the people support the Civil Disobedience Movement as it spread in different parts of the country? Explain with examples.
Answer:
Refer to answer 12

Question 60.
How did colonial government react as the Civil Disobedience Movement spread in the country? Explain any three points.
Answer:
The colonial government reacted to the spread of Civil Disobedience Movement in the following ways:

  • Prominent Congress leaders such as Abdul Ghaffar Khan and Gandhiji began to be arrested.
  • The government used the policy of brutal repression to clamp down the demonstrators.
  • Peaceful satyagrahis were attacked, women and children were beaten and lakhs of people were arrested.

Long Answer Type Questions [5 Marks]

Question 61.
‘Dalit participation was limited in the Civil Disobedience Movement’. Examine the statement.
Answer:

  • Dalit participation was limited in Civil Disobedience Movement because the Congress did not want to offend to ‘Sanatanis’ the upper caste Hindus by including the Dalits.
  • The dalits believed that political empowerment would solve all the problems , of their social disabilities.
  • Many dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to their problems. They organised themselves and demanded reserved seats in educational institutions and separate electorate that would choose dalit members for councils.
  • Ambedkar had clashed with Gandhiji at Second Round Table Conference for demanding separate electorate for dalits. Gandhiji viewed this as slowing down the process of unity and their integration into society.
  • The dalits continued to be apprehensive of Congress led movements because it was dominated by conservative high class Hindus.So the dalit participation in the Civil Disobedience Movement was limited, particularly in Maharashtra and Nagpur region where their organisation was strong.

Question 62.
Why did Gandhiji start the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’? Explain any four features of Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer:
Gandhiji started the Civil Disobedience Movement. On 31 January 1930, he sent a letter to Viceroy Irwin, stating eleven demands. The most stirring demand was to abolish salt tax. Salt is the commodity consumed by all, both rich and poor. It is one of the most essential item of food. The tax on salt and its monopoly over production revealed the oppressive face of British government. MahatmaGandhi started his historic march from Sabarmati Ashram. On 6 April, he reached Dandi and violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water,This was the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement.Main features of the Civil Disobedience Movement are:

  • First successful mass movement.
  • People from all sections participated in the Movement.
  • Women for the first time left their homes and joined the movement.
  • For the first time the movement was launched with the goal of Purna Swaraj.

2012

Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]

Question 64.
Why did Non-cooperation movement gradually slow down in the cities? Give three reasons.
Answer:
Refer to answer 18

Question 65.
Explain the circumstances under which Gandhiji decided to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement in 1931.
Answer:
Refer to answer 10

Question 66.
How was history re-interpreted in creating a feeling of nationalism? Explain with examples.
Answer:
By the end of the 19th century, many Indian felt that people should take pride in their glorious past and started re-interpreting history.

  • The British saw Indians as backward and primitive people incapable of governing themselves. The Indians began looking into the past to discover India’s great achievements.
  • In India, during ancient times there was an all round development in mathematics and science, in art and architecture, religion and philosophy, culture and law. Trade with other countries flourished during ancient times.
  • The glorious time was followed by period of decline when India was colonised.

Long Answer Type Questions [4\5 Marks]

Question 67.
How did the people and the colonial government react to the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.
Answer:
The people reacted differently to the Civil Disobedience Movement.

  • Thousands of people broke colonial laws and salt laws, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government owned salt factories.
  • Foreign cloth was boycotted, liquor shops were picketed. Peasants refused to pay taxes, revenue and chowkidari taxes. In many places people violated forest laws, going into reserved forests to collect wood and graze cattle.
  • In Peshwar, the angry crowd demonstrated in streets, facing armoured cars and police firing.
  • The colonial government reacted ruthlessly. Worked by the popularity of the movement, the government arrested eminent leaders. It led to violent clashes.
  • Peaceful satyagrahis were arrested, people were beaten and 1,00,000 were arrested. Congress was declared illegal. Gandhiji signed the Gandhi-Irwin Pact and agreed to attend the Second Round Table Conference in London.

Question 68.
How did the Non-cooperation Movement start in cities? Explain its economic effects.
Answer:
Refer to answer 30

Question 69.
How did Non-cooperation movement spread to the countryside? Explain any four points.
Answer:
Refer to answer 15

Question 70.
Explain the reactions of the Indian people against the Rowlatt Act passed through the Imperial Legislative Council in 1919.
Answer:
The Rowlatt Act gave enormous powers to the government to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years.

  • Indians reacted against this unreasonable act, Gandhiji wanted a non-violent civil disobedience against the unjust law and decided to start a hartal on 6th April 1919.
  • Rallies were organised in various cities.
  • People organised hartals all over the country in protest of the Rowlatt Act and the shops were shut down.
  • Workers went on strike in railway workshops.

Question 71.
Who was Alluri Sitaram Raju? Explain his role in inspiring the rebels with Gandhiji’s ideas.
Answer:
Alluri Sitaram Raju led the peasant rebellion in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh. He became popular because he claimed that he had special powers of astrological predictions and the power to heal people. He could survive bullet shots.In Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement spread in early 1920s. The main aim of the movement was to protest against colonial laws. The government had closed forest areas for grazing of cattle and collection of firewood or fruits. Government compelled them to work free for road building (begar).The people revolted under Alluri Sitaram Raju. He spoke about the greatness of Gandhiji and he was inspired by Non-Cooperation Movement. The people were persuaded to wear Khadi and give up drinking alcohol. He believed India will become independent by force and not by non-violence. The Gudem rebels attacked police stations and attempted to kill British officials.

Question 72.
Describe the actions taken by the British administration against the nationalists who opposed the Act.
Answer:
The following steps were taken by British administration against the nationalists who opposed the Act.

  • The British administrators decided to clamp down upon the nationalists because they feared that lines of communication such as railways and telegraphs would be disrupted. They adopted the following methods.
  • Local leaders were picked from Amritsar.
  • Mahatma Gandhi was barred from entering Delhi.
  • On 10 April police fired upon peaceful, procession which led to widespread attacks on banks, post offices and railways stations.
  • Martial law was imposed. General Dyer took charge in Amritsar.

Question 73.
Explain the role played by tribal peasants in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh during the Non Cooperation Movement.
Answer:
The tribal peasants of Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh understood the message of Gandhiji and idea of Swaraj in a different way.In Gudem Hills, as in other parts, the tribal peasants were prevented from entering the forest areas, to graze their cattle or to collect fuelwood and fruits. They were also forced to do begar. A militant guerrilla movement had spread in the 1920s.The tribal peasants were deprived of their livelihood and their traditional rights were denied.The person who led them was Alluri Sitaram Raju. He was inspired by Gandhiji, persuaded people to wear khadi and give up drinking. He also believed India will become free with the use of force and not non-violence. People attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officials and carried out guerrilla warfare.

Question 74.
Examine the role of industrial working class in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer:

  • When the Civil Disobedience Movement started, the industrial working class did not participate in large number except in the Nagpur region.
  • As the industrialists gave financial assistance and came closer to the Congress, . the workers did not participate in large number.
  • Some workers did participate in the movement. They boycotted foreign goods. They asked for higher wages and better working conditions. They participated in protest rallies and boycott campaigns in Chotanagpur region.
  • Gandhiji did not support the demands of industrial workers as it would have alienated the business classes.
  • Gandhiji was reluctant to support the industrial working class as it would have divided the anti-imperialist forces.

Question 75.
Explain the role of women in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer:
Refer to answer 27

2011

Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]

Question 76.
Explain any three facts about the new economic situation created in India by the First World War.
Answer:
Refer to answer 14

Question 77.
How did cultural processes help in creating a sense of collective belongingness in India? Explain.
Answer:
Refer to answer 9

Question 78.
Explain any three problems faced by the peasants of Awadh.
Answer:
Refer to answer 23

Question 79.
Explain any three reasons for the lukewarm response of some Muslim organizations to the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Answer:
Refer to answer 51

Question 80.
Explain any three effects of the Non-Cooperation Movement on the economy of India.
Answer:
Refer to answer 46

Question 81.
Why did the industrialists participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain any three reasons.
Answer:
Refer to answer 25

Question 82.
How did Gandhiji try to integrate the Depressed Classes into society? Explain any three points.
Answer:
Gandhiji tried to integrate the Depressed Classes into society in the following ways:

  • He organised Satyagraha to secure entry into temples for them and access to public wells, tanks, roads and schools.
  • He himself cleaned toilets to dignify the work of the untouchables.
  • He persuaded the upper classes to change their attitude towards the depressed classes and give up untouchability.
  • When the British conceded to demand of Dr BR Ambedkar to have separate electorates for the depressed classes, Gandhiji went on a fast unto death as he believed that a separate electorate for Dalits would slow down the process of their integration into society.

Question 83.
How did BR Ambedkar try to improve the conditions of the Depressed Classes? Explain any three points.
Answer:
BR Ambedkar tried to improve the conditions of the Depressed Classes in the following ways:

  • In 1930, Dr. BR Ambedkar organised the Dalits (the untouchables) into an organisation called the Depressed Classes Association, now known as scheduled caste.
  • His ideas regarding depressed class deferred from that of Mahatma Gandhi. He wanted separate electorates for Dalits.
  • Whilst at Round Table Conference in London he demanded separate electorates for Dalits and the British coloniser conceded his demand. This caused Mahatma Gandhi to fast unto the death because he believed that separate electorate for the Dalits would slow down the process of their integration into the main society.
  • He signed the Poona Pact with Gandhi ji and the Congress giving the opportunities to depressed to secure reserved seat for Dalits in the provincial and Central Legislative Council to be voted in general election.

Question 84.
Explain any three causes that led the tribals to revolt in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh.
Answer:
The tribal peasants of Gudem Hill in Andhra Pradesh fought for swaraj and revolted against the British. The following were the causes that led the tribals to the revolt in the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh:

  • The colonial government had closed large forest areas preventing the tribals from entering the forest to graze their cattle and felt that their traditional rights were being taken away.
  • The tribal who were strongly dependent on the forests for food, fruits and fuel were prevented to carry out these activities affecting their livelihood which enraged them.
  • The government was forcing the peasants of the Gudem Hill’to carry out begar (unpaid work) for the building of roads.
  • A militant movement had begun to resist the repressive measures of the colonisers.The tribals here became violent and attacked police station and attempted to kill the British.

Long Answer Type Questions [4\5 Marks]

Question 85.
Explain four points about Gandhiji’s idea of ‘satyagraha’.
Answer:
Gandhiji had carried out successful satyagraha in South Africa against the racist regime.

  • According to him satyagraha was not a passive resistance but it called for intensive activity.
  • It suggested that if the struggle was against injustice, physical force is not necessary to fight the oppressor. Non-violence could also win the battle.
  • Only through the power of truth and non-violence, an appeal was made to the conscience of the oppressor.
  • Persuasion, not force, would make the oppressor realise the truth. This dharma of non-violence and truth united people against the oppressor and made them realise the truth.

Question 86.
Why did the rich peasants take part in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Give four reasons.
Answer:
Among the different social groups which participated in the Civil Disobedience Movement the rich peasants also had their ideals and perceptions of Swaraj which encouraged them to join the movement.

  • Rich peasants like Patidars of Gujarat and Jats in Uttar Pradesh who were producers of commercial crops were hard hit by depression and falling prices.
  • As their cash income reduced, they were unable to pay government revenue.
  • The government refused to reduce revenue.So, the rich peasants became enthusiastic supporter of the Civil Disobedience Movement to free themselves from the situation.

2010

Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]

Question 87.
Analyze the role of merchants and industrialists in the Civil pisobedience Movement.
Answer:
Refer to answer 25

Question 88.
Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide Satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919? Explain any three reasons.
Answer:
Refer to answer 7

Question 89.
How did the peasants who gathered around Nehru near Rae Bareli behave when he addressed them? Explain what Nehru meant when he said, “I needed the lesson more than they.”
Answer:
The peasants gathered around Nehru were calm and peaceful to hear him address them.Nehru meant to say that inspite of brutal and displeased behavior of police, the peasants remained peaceful. On the other hand he had forgotten nonviolence totally at that moment and he was very agitated and disturbed. The peasants taught him a lesson that he was supposed to have being their leader.

Question 90.
“A Satyagrahi wins the battle through non-violence.” Explain with examples.
Answer:
A Satyagrahi wins the battle through non-violence. This statement emphasises the power of truth and the need to search for truth. It suggested that if the cause is true, if the struggle is against injustice, then physical force is not necessary to fight against the oppressor. Without being aggressive a satyagrahi could win the battle. This could be done by appealing to the conscience of the oppressors instead of forcing them to accept truth through the use of violence.

Question 91.
Who was the President of the Congress when the decision was taken to celebrate 26 January 1930 as Independence Day?Why must India sever the British connection and attain Purna Swaraj? Explain briefly.
Answer:
Jawaharlal Nehru was the President of the Congress when the decision was taken to celebrate 26 January 1930 as Independence Day.India must sever the British connection because the British deprived Indians of their rights and oppressed and exploited them and has ruined India economically, politically, culturally and spiritually to the fullest.

Question 92.
How did the Non-Cooperation spread to the countryside? Explain.
Answer:
Refer to answer 15

Question 93.
How did a variety of cultural processes play an important role in developing a sense of nationalism in India? Explain with examples.
Answer:
Refer to answer 9

Nationalism in India Class 10 Map Questions

Question 94.
94. Some features are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify them with the help of the following information and write their correct names.

  1. The place where the Indian National Congress session was held in 1927.
    The place associated with peasants’ Satyagraha
    Or
    The place where peasants struggled against the indigo plantation system.
    Or
    The place where the ‘Movement of Indigo planters’ was started.
  2. The city associated with the Jallianwala Bagh incident.
  3. The place where cotton mill workers organised Satyagraha in 1918.
    Or
    Name the place related to the Satyagraha of peasants in Gujarat.
  4. The place related to the calling off the Non-Cooperation Movement.
  5. The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held.
    Or
    The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held in September 1920.
  6. The place where the Indian National Congress Session was held in 1920.
  7. The place where peasants organized a Satyagraha
    Or
    The place where ‘No Tax Campaign’ was started.
  8. The place where the Civil Disobedience Movement was started.

Nationalism in India Map
Answer:

  1. Madras (Now Chennai)
  2. Champaran (Bihar)
  3. Amritsar
  4. Ahmedabad
  5. Chauri-Chaura (UP)
  6. Calcutta (Kolkata)
  7. Nagpur
  8. Bardoli
  9. Sabarmati Ashram (Gujarat)

Question 95.
Locate and label the following with appropriate symbols on the given outline map of India.

  1. Champaran-The place, from where the movement of Indigo planters was Started.
  2. Bardoli-The place from where ‘No Tax Campaign’ was started.
  3. Chauri-Chaura-The place of calling off Non-Cooperation Movement.
  4. Amritsar-The place where Jallian wala Bagh incident took place.
  5. Kheda-The place where the peasants Satyagraha was held.
  6. Madras-The place where, the Indian National Congress Session of 1927 was held.

Answer:
Nationalism in India Map with solutions