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Making Of A Global World Class 10 History Most likely and most Important Questions

The Making of a Global World Chapter Wise Important Questions Class 10 Social Science – History


2016

Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]

Question 1.
Why is it said that there was no other war earlier like first world war? State in three points.
Answer:
There was no other war earlier like First World War because of the following reasons.

  • This was the only war in the modern world which involved almost all countries in one or the other way.
  • In this war, the weapons used had a deadly potential to kill and destroy whatever came in their way.
  • There was an immense loss of young and productive population.
  • Economies of the countries round the world crashed beyond the level of recovery. The winners were the losers themselves.

Question 2.
Why did Europeans flee to America in the 19th Century? Give three reasons.
Answer:
The Europeans fled to America in the 19th century because of the following reasons.

  • Poverty and hunger were common and widespread in Europe in the beginning of the 19th century.
  • Cities were overcrowded and people feared deadly diseases.
  • Religious conflicts were frequent as dissenters were persecuted on a large scale.

Question 3.
“The relocation of industry to low-wage countries stimulated world trade and capital flows.” Justify the statement.
Answer:
Relocation of industry to low wage countries stimulated world trade and capital flows due to the following reasons.

  • In the last two decades the world economic geography has been transformed as countries like China, India and Brazil have undergone rapid economic transformation.
  • Wages were relatively low in these countries. Thus, these became attractive destinations for investment by foreign MNCs competing to capture world markets. The low cost structure of economy of China and low wages specially attracted them.
  • With the failure of Soviet style communism and the collapse of Soviet Union, many Eastern European countries were also integrated in the world economy.

Question 4.
Why did household incomes decline after the First World War? Give two reasons.
Answer:
The household income declined after the First World War because of the following reasons.

  • During the war, much of the attention was on the production of war related goods and people for fighting. Large tracts of lands were left uncultivated which reduced household income.
  • The war saw large scale killing, most of them were men of working age. The deaths and injuries in the war reduced the able-bodied workforce. Families left behind found it difficult to survive.

Long Answer Type Question [5 Marks]

Question 5.
Explain, giving examples, the role played by technological inventions in transforming 19th century world.
Answer:
Technological inventions played the following role in transforming 19th century world.

  • The railways, steamships, the telegraphs were some important inventions without which the transformed 19th century world could not be imagined.
  • Technological advancements stimulated the process of industrialization. Production expanded and thus the trade.
  • Colonisers further began new investments that improved transport. Faster railways, lighter wagons and larger ships helped move food more cheaply and quickly from faraway farms to final markets.
  • The trade in meat can be mentioned as a good example of technological advancement. Earlier live animals were shipped to various places where they were slaughtered for food. They occupied much space and many fell ill and even died on the way. This increased the cost of meat which the poor could not afford.
  • With the development of refrigerated ships, perishable foods could travel long distances. This lowered the price of foods like meat. Now the poor in Europe could afford a more varied diet.

Question 9.
How did the withdrawals of US loans during the phase of the Great Depression affect the rest of the world? Explain in three points.
Answer:
The withdrawal of US loans during the Great Depression affected the rest of the world in different ways.

  • It led to some major banks crashing and the collapse of currencies such as the British pound sterling in Europe.
  • It also led to a fall in agricultural productivity and raw material prices in Latin America.
  • Unemployment became rampant as no jobs could be generated. It led to mass migration from rural areas to cities.

Long Answer Type Question [5 Marks]

Question 10.
The Spanish conquest and colonization of America was decisively underway by the mid-sixteenth century.’ Explain with examples.
Answer:
The Spanish conquest and colonization of America was decisively underway by the mid-sixteenth century because of the following reasons.

  • It was not with conventional weaponry that the Spanish conquerors won America but with germs like smallpox which was spread into the region.
  • America’s original inhabitants had no immunity against these diseases that came from Europe.
  • Smallpox was a deadly weapon. It spread deep into the continent before any European could reach there.
  • It erased whole communities, leading to conquest.
  • This biological warfare in mid-sixteenth century made it easy for Spanish to overpower the Americans.

2014
Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]

Question 11.
How did rinderpest become instrumental in subjugating the Africans?
Answer:
Rinderpest was a devastating cattle disease that not only affected the cattle but also the lives of the people by subjugating them to the Europeans in the following ways.

  • It affected the livelihood, economy and even the social peace and harmony of the Africans.
  • About ninety-nine per cent of the cattle were killed, which forced Africans to work for the Europeans in the plantations.
  • It enabled the Europeans to colonise and subdue Africa. The colonial government forced Africans into labour market.

Question 12.
Explain the three types of flows within international economy in exchanges.
Answer:
Refer to answer 20.

Question 13.
How did technology help to solve hardship of food availability throughout the world in the late-nineteenth century? Explain with example.
Answer:
Technological advancement stimulated the process of food availability. Technology help to solve hardship of food availability in the following ways.

  • Because of new investments and improvements in transport, like faster railways with lighter wagons and large ships, food moved quickly and cheaply from farms to final markets.
  • Now perishable food could travel long distances easily through refrigerated ships.
  • Earlier animals were carried long which posed problems like utilisation of space, diseases and loss of weight. Now animals could be slaughtered and easily packed for long distances. Cost of transportation also reduced.
  • The poor could now consume more varied diet including meat as it was available in plenty and at reduced costs.

Question 14.
Explain the impact of First World War on the British economy.
Answer:
The following were the impacts of First World War on the British economy.

  • 15 to 25 per cent of Britain’s wealth was spent on the war.
  • It had borrowed heavily from the United States and after the war, the debts mounted.
  • Because of the war, British industries could not produce goods for exports. Its monopoly in production was taken over by its colonies.
  • Being unable to modernize its industries and compete with the United States, Germany and Japan, British economy crumbled.

Question 15.
Describe the Canal Colonies. Where and why were they introduced?
Answer:
The areas irrigated by the new canals built by the British were called the Canal Colonies.These were introduced in the region of west Punjab. Peasants from the other parts of Punjab settled around these canals.The British wanted to transform semi-desert wastelands into fertile agricultural land. Their aim was to grow wheat and cotton for export.

Question 16.
Describe the effects of abolishing the Com Laws.
Answer:
The following were the effects of abolishing the Com Laws in England.

  • After the Corn Laws were scrapped, food could be imported into Britain more cheaply than it could be produced within the country.
  • British agriculture was unable to compete with imports.
  • Vast areas of land were now left uncultivated and thousands of men and women were thrown out of work.
  • Peasants flocked to the cities or migrated overseas.

Question 17.
When was the Bretton Woods Conference convened? State the main aim of the conference.
Answer:
The Bretton Woods Conference was convened in July 1944 in New Hampshire,USA. The main aims of the conference were:

  • To preserve the economic stability of Europe and ensure full employment in the industrial world.
  • To control the influence of the outer world on flow of capital, goods and labour.

Long Answer Type Questions [5 Marks]

Question 18.
Describe the circumstances responsible for the formation of G-77.
Answer:
The circumstances responsible for the formation of G-77 were as follows.

  • After the Second World War, most colonies in Asia and Africa emerged as free and independent nations. They were however overburdened with poverty and lack of resources because of long period of colonial rule.
  • The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, set up to finance post-war reconstitution, helped only the industrial countries. They were not equipped to meet the challenges of poverty of developing countries. ,
  • In order to remove poverty, newly-independent countries came under the guidance of international financial institutions dominated by former colonial masters.
  • Colonial powers still controlled vital resources of newly-independent nations.
  • The newly-independent nations felt that they are not benefiting from thegrowth of western economics and international financial institutions as they should.Therefore, these countries organised themselves to form G-77 or the Group of 77.

Question 19.
“Trade and cultural exchange always went hand in hand.” Explain the statement in the light of silk route.
Answer:
Trade and internal exchange always went hand in hand. The following points sum up the statement.

  • Early Christian missionaries travelled to Asia from the Silk route as did the early Muslim preachers a few centuries later.
  • Buddhism emerged from eastern India and spread in several directions via the silk routes.
  • Historians have identified several silk routes over land and by sea. Now the vast regions of Asia could be connected. It also linked Asia,,with Europe and northern Africa through trade and culture.
  • Silk routes are known to have existed since before the Christian Era. It continued to thrive almost till the fifteenth century. Chinese pottery also followed the same route, like textiles and spices from India and Southeast Asia. In return, precious metals like gold and silver flowed from Europe to Asia.
  • Traders and travellers introduced new crops to the areas they travelled. if) Along this trade route ideas too travelled to distant places.

Question 20.
Explain the three types of movements or flows within international economic exchange. Mention any one example of any one type of flow from India and one from England.
Answer:
The following were the three types of movements within the international economic exchange.

  • Flow of goods: The first is the flow of goods, such as cloth or wheat. After the Corn Laws were scrapped in Britain, it started importing food. Eastern European countries, Russia and America increased their food productivity to meet the needs of Britain. There was faster growth of industry in Britain and, with increased food productivity in other countries, more land was put under cultivation. This meant building homes and settlements, which required capital and labour.
  • Flow of labour : This refers to the migration of people from one place to another in search of work. The demand for labour in places like America and Australia led to migration. There was flow of labour in search of employment. Nearly 50 million people migrated from Europe to America and Australia in the nineteenth century. All over the world about 150 million are estimated to have left their homes and crossed oceans for a better future.
  • Flow of capital: This led to the third flow—flow of capital for short-term or long-term investments. In this, the movement of resources from one country to another takes place through loans or business investments.By 1890, a global agricultural economy had taken shape, accompanied by complex changes in labour patterns. The British transferred a lot of capital from India to England before independence. All three are closely associated and affected the lives of people in the nineteenth century.

Question 21.
How did the Great Depression of 1929 affect the farmers and the middle classes in India in different ways?
Answer:
The Great Depression of 1929 affected the farmers and the middl^cfass in India in the following ways.

  • Agricultural prices began to fell and finally collapsed in 1930. This further decreased the demand for agricultural goods.
  • It became difficult for the peasants to sell their harvest and pay revenues.
  • Peasants and farmers ran into huge debts who had mortgaged*.their land and used their savings.
  • This depression however did not hit the urban areas where the middle class lived and had fixed incomes.
  • Middle class salaried people were not affected and rather they could buy goods at a cheaper rate. They rather became well-off and could buy more by spending less.

2013

Short Answer Type Question [3 Marks]

Question 22.
Define trade surplus. Why did Britain have a trade surplus with India?
Answer:
The amount by which the value of a country’s exports exceeds the cost of its imports is called trade surplus.Britain had trade surplus with India because of the following reasons.

  • The value of British exports to India was much higher than the value of British imports from India. Britain wanted to balance its trade deficits.
  • Trade surplus also helped to pay the ‘home charges’, which included interest payments on India’s external debts and pensions of British officials in India.

2012

Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]

Question 23.
Before the arrival to outsiders, most of the Africans had a little reason to work for a wage. Explain three reasons.
Answer:
Most Africans had a little reason to work for a wage because of the following reasons.

  • They had abundant land and the population was scare.
  • Abundant land and livestock had traditionally sustained their livelihood since ages.
  • Apart from that, the Africans owned vast minerals resources. They had rarely worked for wages.

Question 24.
Explain three effects of the abolition of Com Laws?
Answer:
Refer to answer 16.

2011

Long Answer Type Questions [5 Marks]

Question 25.
How did the global transfer of disease in pre-modem world helped in colonisation of the Americas?
Answer:
From the sixteenth century, vast lands, abundant crops and minerals of the Americas attracted sea-facing nations. The Portuguese and Spanish started the conquest and colonisation of America. Most interesting fact is that it was not a result of any military or political action. It was through global transfer of diseases, which took place in the following ways.

  • America was long isolated from the rest of the world. Its inhabitants had no knowledge and immunity against diseases of Europe.
  • The Spanish conquerors used their instance to introduce germs of smallpox through their smallpox-infected person. It proved to be a deadly killer.
  • It spread deep into the continent and killed and decimated whole communities, (id) Weapons and soldiers could not be used for this as they could be bought or captured and used against the invaders also.

Question 26.
What was the impact of technology on food availability?
Answer:
Refer to answer 13.

2010

Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]

Question 27.
Explain how the First World War was so horrible a war like none other before.
Answer:
The First World War was a horrible was like none before, because of the following reasons.

  • There was a massive use of new destructive weapons like machine guns, tanks, aircrafts and above all chemical weapons.
  • The scale of death and destruction was beyond the limits, with countless number of injured.
  • Able-bodied workforce had reduced.
  • European countries had found their economics shattered.

Question 28.
Describe in brief the world economic condition of the post First World War period.
Answer:
The post-war economic recovery proved to be very difficult.

  • Britain, the leading world economy in the pre-war days, faced grave crises. Because of heavy borrowing from the United States before the war and unable to recapture its earlier position, Britain was burdened with huge external debts.
  • War transformed the United States from international debtor to international creditor. The United States and its citizens owned overseas assets.
  • Many agricultural economies also went in crises. After the war, foodgrain production boomed dramatically. It resulted in fall of grain prices and reduced rural income.
  • End of War boom led to huge job losses because the governments reduced War expenditure. In Britain one out of five workers was jobless.

Question 29.
Describe in brief the destruction caused during the Second World War.
Answer:
The Second World War was more devastating than the first. The following points sum up the destruction caused during the Second World War.

  • It led to the persisting of three per cent of the total world’s population. Irony was that more civilians died than the fighting soldiers.
  • Aerial bombardment and artillery attacks devastated several cities.
  • Apart fonp this, there was huge economic and social disruption, reconstruction of which seemed to be long and difficult.

2009

Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]

Question 30.
Describe briefly the effects of rinderpest in Africa in the 1890s.
Answer:
Refer to answer 11.

Question 31.
How was the food problem solved in Britain after scrapping of the Corn Laws? Explain.
Answer:
The food problem, after scrapping of Corn Laws, in Britain was solved in the following ways.

  • Large tracts of land were cleared to expand food production.
  • Railways were built to link agricultural regions to ports. Now harbours were built and old were expanded.
  • Homes and settlements were developed to settle people on lands brought under cultivation.