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Agriculture Best Question Answers

Important Questions) Important Questions CBSE Class 10th : Social Science Year 2020 (Agriculture)

Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]
Question 1.
In which season are rabi crops sown in India?
Answer:
The rabi crops are sown in India in winter from October to December.
Question 2.
Which is the leading sugarcane producer state of India?
Answer:
Uttar Pradesh is the leading producer of sugarcane in India.
Long Answer Type Question [5 Marks]
Question 3.
Explain any five steps taken by the central and state governments to improve
Indian agriculture after independence.
Answer:
Various initiatives taken by the central and state governments to ensure the increase in agricultural production after independence are as follows.
  •  Collectivism, consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of zamindari, etc. were given priority to bring about institutional reforms in the country after independence.
  •  Land reforms were the main focus of the First Five Year Plan.
  •  The Green Revolution based on the use of package technology and the White Revolution (Operation Flood) were some of the strategies initiated to improve Indian agriculture.
  •  Minimum Support Price Policy, provisions for crop insaurance, subsidy on agricultural inputs and resources such as power and fertilisers, Grameen banks, Kissan Credit Card (KCC) and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme are some of the reforms brought by the government.
  • Establishment of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), agricultural universities, veterinary services and animal breeding centres, horticulture development and weather forecast etc. were given priority for improving Indian agriculture.
Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]
Question 4.
What term is used for grouping of small land holdings with bigger ones?
Answer:
The term used for grouping of small land holdings with bigger ones is consolidation
of land holdings.
Question 5.
What is White Revolution related to?
Answer:
White Revolution is related to the production of milk. It is also called Operation Flood.
Long Answer Type Questions [5 Marks]
Question 6.
Describe the conditions required for the cultivation of tea. Name two major tea-producing states of India.
Answer:
Tea is an important beverage crop. The following are the conditions required for its cultivation.
  • The tea plant grows in tropical and sub-tropical regions, which have deep, fertile and well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter.
  • Tea bushes require warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year.
  • Tea bushes require frequent showers throughout the year to ensure continuous growth of tender leaves. It needs abundant, cheap and skilled labour.
  • Two major tea-producing states are Assam and West Bengal.
Question 7.
Name the two most important staple food crops in India. Mention the geographical conditions required for their growth.
Answer:
The two most important staple food crops in India are rice and wheat.
The geographical conditions required for the growth of rice are as follows.
  •  It requires high temperature—above 25°C.
  •  It requires high humidity for its growth.
  • It requires annual rainfall above 100 cm.
    The geographical conditions required for the growth of wheat arenas follows.
  •  It is a rabi crop and needs cool growing season.
  •  It requires bright sunshine at the time of ripening.
  • It also requires 50 to 70 cm of annual rainfall, well distributed over the growing season.
Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]
Question 8.
By what other name is ‘slash and burn’ agriculture known?
Answer:
‘Slash and burn’ agriculture is also known as jhumming.
Question 9.
Of which agricultural product is India the largest producer as well as consumer in the world?
Answer:
India is the largest producer as well as consumer of pulses in the world.
Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]
Question 10.
Mention any three geographical conditions required for rice cultivation in India.
Answer:
The term used for grouping of small land holdings with bigger ones is consolidation
of land holdings.
Question 11.
Describe the geographical conditions required for the growth of wheat in India.
Answer:
The term used for grouping of small land holdings with bigger ones is consolidation
of land holdings.
Long Answer Type Question [5 Marks]
Question 12.
Suggest any five measures to enhance the agricultural production in India
Answer:
Agricultural is an important economic activity in our country. I would like to suggest the following measures to enhance the agricultural production in India.
  • Each district and block can be made self-sufficient in agricultural production if the government provides proper agricultural infrastructure, irrigation facilities, electricity, etc.
  • Loans can be provided at lower interest rates to cultivator.
  • The use of latest techniques can be encouraged.
  • Instead of concentrating only on rice or wheat, the food crop with a better growth potential in that particular area must be encouraged.
  •  attracting foreign investment in agriculture and also free trade in grains will not only increase agricultural production, but will also create massive employment and reduce poverty in rural areas.
  • Farmers should diversify their cropping pattern from cereals to high-value crops.
Question 13.
Name the state which is the largest producer of ragi.
Answer:
Karnataka is the largest producer of ragi.
Long Answer Type Question [5 Marks]
Question 14.
Mention the geographical conditions required for the growth of cotton along with any four cotton-producing states.
Answer:
Cotton is a kharif crop. India is believed to be the original home of the cotton plants. The geographical conditions required for the growth of cotton are as follows.
  • Cotton grows in the drier parts of the black cotton soil of the Deccan Plateau.
  • Cotton needs high temperature, light rainfall, 210 forest-free days and bright sunshine for its growth.
  • It requires 6 to 8 months to grow.
  •  Major cotton-producing states are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka
2012
Very Short Answer Type Question [1 Mark]
Question 15.
Name the crop of which India is the largest producer and consumer.
Answer:
India is the largest producer and consumer of the pulses in the world.
Question 16.
Distinguish between primitive subsistence farming and intensive subsistence farming.
Answer:
The following are the differences between primitive subsistence farming and intensive subsistence farming.
Agriculture Chapter Wise Important Questions Class 10 Social Science 1
Agriculture Chapter Wise Important Questions Class 10 Social Science 2
Question 17.
Define plantation agriculture. Explain any four characteristics of plantation agriculture.
Answer:
Plantation is a type of commercial farming where a single crop is grown on a large area. The following are the four characteristics of plantation.
  • Plantations have very large areas.
  • Capital-intensive inputs are used.
  • Migrant labourers are used.
  • All the produce is used as raw material in respective industries.
  • The development of plantations is the result of a well-developed network of transport and communication, connecting plantations to markets
Question 18.
What are the two cotton-producing states of north India? Describe four geographical conditions required for the growth of cotton.
Answer:
The two cotton-producing states of north India are Punjab and Haryana. It is a kharif crop.
For geographical conditions required for the growth of cotton.
Question 19.
How has irrigation changed the cropping pattern in many regions of India. Explain with examples.
Answer:
Irrigation has changed the cropping pattern of many regions, with farmers shifting to water-intensive and commercial crops.
  • Due to the success oi the Green Revolution in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan, these states have started growing rabi crops like wheat, barley, peas and gram.
  • Paddy has become an important crop of Punjab and Haryana. In states like Assam, West Bengal and Orissa, three crops of paddy are grown in a year. They are Aus, Aman and Boro.
  • The development of canal irrigation and tubewells has made it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall such as Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.
  • The use of modem inputs like HYV (High Yielding Variety) seeds, fertilizers and irrigation has contributed to high production of maize.
Question 20.
“Wheat and rice farming in India are fairly different from each other.” Support the statement with five suitable examples.
Answer:
Agriculture Chapter Wise Important Questions Class 10 Social Science 3
2011
Short Answer Type Questions [3 Marks]
Question 21.
Explain rubber cultivation in India under the following heads.
(a) Importance
(b) Geographical conditions
(c) Any two rubber-producing states
Answer:
  • Importance: Rubber is an important industrial raw material.
  •  Geographical conditions: It is an equitable crop, which is grown in tropical and subtropical areas. It requires moist and humid climate with temperature above 25°C and rainfall above 200 cm.
  • Two rubber-producing states: It is mainly grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Garo hills of Meghalaya
Question 22.
Explain rice cultivation in India under the following heads.
(a) Temperature (b) Rainfall
(c) Agricultural season (d) Major producing areas
Answer:
  • Temperature: Rice requires a high temperature of above 25°C.
  • Rainfall: It requires high humidity with an annual rainfall above 100 cm. In the areas of less rainfall, irrigation is essential.
  • Agricultural season: It is a kharif crop, which is grown with the onset of monsoon and is harvested in September-October.
  • Major producing areas: Rice is cultivated in the plains of north and northeastern India, coastal areas and the deltaic regions. Development of canal irrigation and tubewells have made it possible to grow rice in areas of low rainfall such as Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and parts of Rajasthan.
Long Answer Type Questions [5 Marks]
Question 23.
What is intensive subsistence farming? Write three features of intensive subsistence farming.
Answer:
Intensive subsistence farming is practised in areas of high density of population, where pressure of population is high on agricultural land.
The following are the three features of this type of farming.
  • It is labour-intensive farming.
  •  High doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher , production.
  •  Farm size is small and uneconomical due to the division of land.
  •  Farmers take maximum output from the limited land.
  •  Farmers do not have any alternative source of livelihood. Thus, there is enormous pressure on agricultural land.
Question 24.
24. Write the geographical conditions required for the cultivation of rice and tea.
Answer:
Various initiatives taken by the central and state governments to ensure the increase in agricultural production after independence are as follows.
  • Collectivism, consolidation of holdings, cooperation and abolition of zamindari, etc. were given priority to bring about institutional reforms in the country after independence.
  •  Land reforms were the main focus of the First Five Year Plan.
  • The Green Revolution based on the use of package technology and the White Revolution (Operation Flood) were some of the strategies initiated to improve Indian agriculture.
  • Minimum Support Price Policy, provisions for crop insaurance, subsidy on agricultural inputs and resources such as power and fertilisers, Grameen banks, Kissan Credit Card (KCC) and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme are some of the reforms brought by the government.
  •  Establishment of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), agricultural universities, veterinary services and animal breeding centres, horticulture development and weather forecast etc. were given priority for improving Indian agriculture.
    The term used for grouping of small land holdings with bigger ones is consolidation
    of land holdings.
Question 25.
Explain any five features of Indian agriculture.
Answer:The following are the five features of Indian agriculture.
  • Indian agriculture is mainly of intensive subsistence type.
  • It is mainly practised in areas of high population pressure on land.
  • It is labour-intensive farming, where high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining high yields.
  •  Farmers continue to take maximum output from the limited land in the absence of alternate source of livelihood, which leads to enormous pressure on agricultural land.
  • The right of inheritance has led to division of land among successive generations and rendered the size of land holding uneconomical.
Question 26.
Explain any five characteristics of commercial farming in India.
Answer:
The following are the five characteristics of commercial farming in India.
  • The main characteristic of commercial farming is the use of high doses of modern inputs, like HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers, insecticides and pesticides, in order to obtain higher productivity.
  • The degree of commercialisation of agriculture varies from one region to another, for example rice is a commercial crop in Punjab and Haryana but in Odisha it is a subsistence crop.
  • Plantation is also a type of commercial farming where a single crop is grown on a large area.
  • Plantations cover large areas using capital intensive inputs with the help of migrant labourers.
  • In India tea, coffee, rubber, sugar cane and banana are important plantation crops.
2010
Very Short Answer Type Questions [1 Mark]
Question 27.
Mention the sowing period of kharif crops.
Answer:
Kharif crops are sown with the onset of monsoon in different parts of the country.
Question 28.
Mention the sowing period of rabi crops.
Answer:
Rabi crops are sown in winter from October to December.
Question 29.
Which is the main food crop grown in north and northwestern parts of India.
Answer:
Wheat is the main food crop grown in the north and northwestern parts of India.
Long Answer Type Questions (5 Marks]
Question 30.
Write four geographical requirements each for the growth of tea and sugar cane.
Answer:
For geographical conditions required for the growth of tea.
The following are the geographical conditions required for the production of sugar cane.
  • It is a tropical as well as sub-tropical crop.
  • It needs hot and humid climate with temperature of 21°C to 27°C.
  • It requires annual rainfall between 75 cm and 100 cm.
  •  It can grow on a variety of soil.
Question 31.
Describe any four institutional reforms introduced by the government of India
in the interest of the farmers.
Answer:
The institutional reforms introduced by the government of India in the interest of formers are as follows.
  •  Collectivisation and consolidation of land holdings and abolition of zamindari system.
  • Provision for crop insurance against droughts, floods, cyclone, fire and diseases.
  • Establishment of grameen banks and cooperative societies to give loans to the farmers at low rate of interest.
  • Announcement of minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen.
  •  Introduction of schemes like Kissan Credit Card (KCC) and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) for the benefit of the farmers. (any four)
Question 32.
“Agriculture and industry are complementary to each other.” Justify the statement.
Answer:
Agriculture and industry are complementary to each other in the following ways.
  • Agro-based industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its productivity.
  •  Industry has contributed to agriculture by using the implements like irrigation pumps, fertilisers, insecticides, pesticides, plastic and PVC pipes, machines tools, sprinkles and drip irrigation systems.
  • Thus, development and competitiveness, and manufacturing industry has not only assisted agriculturalists in increasing their productivity, but also made production process very efficient.
  • In the present day world of globalisation, industry needs to be more efficient
    and competitive.
  • Today we are not only self-sufficient in agriculture but our farmers are able to compete with other farmers in the world. Today, we are able to produce goods for international market.
Question 33.
Why is the growth rate in agriculture decelerating? How did the Government
of India make efforts to modernise agriculture? Explain.
Answer:
The growth rate in agriculture is decelerating due to the following reasons.
  • Reduction in public investment in agriculture especially for irrigation, power, rural roads, etc.
  •  Subsidy on fertilisers has decreased leading to increase in the cost of production.
  • Reduction in import of agricultural goods
  •  Lack of employment in agriculture
  •  Erratic nature of monsoon rainfall
To modernise agriculture the Government of India has taken concerted efforts
like the following.
  • Setting up of Indian Council of Agricultural Research.
  •  Setting up of agricultural universities, veterinary services and animal breeding centres.
  • Horticulture development
  •  Research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast
  • Improvement of rural infrastructure
2009
Short Answer Type Question [3 Marks]
Question 34.
Explain any four features of intensive subsistence farming in India.
Answer:
The following are the differences between primitive subsistence farming and intensive subsistence farming.
Agriculture Chapter Wise Important Questions Class 10 Social Science 1Agriculture Chapter Wise Important Questions Class 10 Social Science 2
MAP QUESTIONS
RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT
One item is shown in the given political outline map of India. Identity this item with the help of the following information and write its correct name.
A type of soil
B Type of soil
C Type of soil
D Type of soil
E Type of soil
F Type of soil
G Type of soil
Agriculture Chapter Wise Important Questions Class 10 Social Science 4
FOREST AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES
On the given political outline map of India, locate and label the following items.
A Reserved forests
B Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary
C Corbett National Park
D Periyar Tiger Reserve
E Largest area under permanent forests
F Bhandavgarh National park
G Manas National Park
H Sunderbans National Park
I Protected forests
Agriculture Chapter Wise Important Questions Class 10 Social Science 5
_________________________________________________
Other Important Questions:



Question .1. What is the importance of agriculture in Indian economy?
Answer : 
India is an agricultural country as nearly 65% of its population depends on agriculture for its livelihood. It provide food, raw material for industries and some product for export. It accounts for about 25% of the gross domestic product.

Question .2. Name three features of Indian agriculture?
Answer : 
The feature of Indian agriculture are:-
(i) The food security is insured.
(ii) Several raw materials for industries are produced, e.g. cotton, jute.
(iii) Produces several products for export, e.g. tea.

Question .3. What is plantation agriculture?
Answer : 
It is a bush or tree farming of Tea, Rubber, Coffee, etc. It is a large scale single crop farming which involves huge capital, good management, technical knowledge and better transport facilities.

Question .4. Name three important wheat producing states in India?
Answer : 
The important wheat producing states in India are:-
(i) Punjab
(ii) Haryana
(iii) Uttar Pradesh

Question .5. Name three sugarcane producing states of the country?
Answer : 
The sugarcane producing states of the country are:-
(i) Uttar Pradesh
(ii) Maharastra
(iii) Karnataka
(iv) Tamil Nadu
(v) Andhra Pradesh

Question .6. Mention spice producing areas of India?
Answer : 
(i) Kerala (ii) Karnataka (iii) Tamil Nadu

Question .7. Name three tobacco producing states of India?
Answer : 
(i) Gujarat (ii) Uttar Pradesh (iii) Andhra Pradesh (iv) Karnataka

Question .8. Which states make up for over two-third of the cattle population?
Answer :
 (i) Madhya Pradesh (ii) Uttar Pradesh (iii) Bihar (iv) Maharastra (v) Orissa (vi) Karnataka (vii) Rajasthan have over two-third of the cattle population in India.

Question .9. Which animal is called poor man’s cow? Give its distribution?
Answer : 
Goat is called poor man’s cow.It provides milk, meat, hair, hides and skins.More than 50% of the goats are found in Bihar, Jharkhand, Rajasthan, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh.

Question .10. State the advantages of Biotechnology?
Answer : 
(i) Biotechnology is used to increase the crop yield per hectare.
(ii) Genetically modified crops require less water.

Question .11. Distinguish between Shifting and Subsistence agriculture?
Answer :
Shifting Agriculture
Subsistence Agriculture
1. It is used in forest land.
1.It is used in area suitable for agriculture.
2. Farmers have to move place to place after two or three years.
2. Farmers do not move from a particular piece of land.
3. The yield is low.
3. The yield is high.
4. No cash crop are grown.
4. Cash crops can also be grown.
Question .12. Distinguish between Rabi and Kharif Crops?Answer :
Rabi
Kharif
1. Rabi is sown in October-November.
1. It is sown with the onset of monsoon in June or early July.
2. The crops depend upon the moisture of sub-soil.
2. The crops depend upon monsoons.
3. The harvesting of crops is done in April-May.
3. The harvesting of crops is done in October-November.
4. The important crops are wheat, gram, mustard oil seeds, etc.
4. The important crops are rice, millets, maize, groundnut, jute, etc.
Question .13. Distinguish between Dry and Wet agriculture?Answer :
Dry Agriculture
Wet Agriculture
1. It is practiced in areas of low rainfall.
1. It is practiced in areas of high rainfall.
2. Irrigation facilities are not sufficient.
2. Irrigation facilities are sufficient.
3. Crops which require less moisture are grown like pulses, jowar, bajra, etc.
3. At least two crops are grown in a year. One Kharif like rice and the other Rabi like wheat.
Question .14. Differentiate between Tea and Coffee cultivation?Answer:
Tea Cultivation
Coffee Cultivation
1. Tea is obtained by processing the tender leaves of the bush.
1. Coffee is obtained by processing the beans.
2. The ideal temperature for its growth is 20º C to 30º C.
2. The ideal temperature for its growth is 15º C to 28ºC.
3. It is grown extensively in the NE.
3. It is flourished in the SW.
4. It is grown on the undulating land of West Bengal, Assam.
4. It is confined to the Nilgiri hills, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
Question .15. Describe the condition required for Jute and its distribution?
Answer : 
Jute requires hot and humid climate. The ideal temperature is above 25º C and rainfall above 150 cm. It is produced in West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Orissa and Meghalaya.

Question .16. What is the sowing and harvesting period of Kharif season. Name two main crops of Kharif season?
Answer : Sowing Period –
 with the onset of monsoon in June.
Harvesting Period – beginning of winter in November.
Two main crops of Kharif are:-
(i) Rice
(ii) Maize.

Question . 17. Which is the staple food crop of India? Write four major producing area of that crop?
Answer :
 The staple food crop of India is Rice.
The major producing areas are:-
(i) West Bengal
(ii) Uttar Pradesh
(iii) Andhra Pradesh
(iv) Tamil Nadu and
(v) Punjab.

Question .18. Indian cattle are in great demand in the international market. Explain one reason. Also, explain two reasons why agricultural animals are more important to farmers?
Answer : 
Indian cattle are hardy and resistant to several diseases.Agricultural animals are important part of farming and also contribute to the income of farmers.

Question .19. Explain food security?
Answer : 
Gradual shift from the cultivation of cereal crops to cash crops like fruits, vegetables, oil seeds and crops which provide raw material to industries has been done.This had led to the reduction of net sown areas of cereal crops, millets and pulses. With the growing population, the reduction in production has put a big question mark over the country’s future food security.

Question .20. Describe the impact of globalization on Indian agriculture?
Answer : 
(i) The aim of globalization is to integrate our national economy with that of the world.
(ii) It is based on the philosophy of free and open international trade.
(iii) There is no need of agreement and negotiation with any country.
(iv) The product of good quality will survive in the market.
(v) Thus the basic two factors are:-
(a) Use of advanced technology and
(b) Vast capital.
(vi) We can have a better access to the reasonable and abundant capital from all parts of the world.
(vii) To stand in the global competition biotechnology may be used.

Question .21. What is the importance of animal husbandry in India?
Answer : 
(i) Farm animals form an important ecosystem in an agricultural country.
(ii) Farm animals are partners of the farmers.
(iii) Livestock production contributes to household, nutritional security and elevate poverty by increasing income.
(iv) Buffalo,ox,camel are used as performing activities like ploughing, sowing, threshing and transporting farm products.
(v) Cows and buffaloes provide milk.
(vi) Due to white revolution, India is the largest producer of milk in the world.

Question .22. Describe the rice cultivation in India?
Answer : 
(i) Rice is grown on about 25% of the total cropped area and provide food to about 50% of the population of India.
(ii) Being a tropical crop, rice requires high temperature and maximum humidity.
(iii) The average temperature should be about 24º C and average rain fall of 100 cm.
(iv) In Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh rice is grown with the help of irrigation.
(v) The major producer of rice are West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu.

Question .23. ‘Despite the Green Revolution, the food production has started to show a declining trend;. How?
Answer : 
(i) In past 50 years, production of the food grain has increased from 51 MT to 209 MT.
(ii) There is rapid increase in population in India, requires food grain, pulses, oil seeds and vegetable.
(iii) There is surplus food grains but 26% of population in India are below poverty line.
(iv) There are reduction of net sown area under foodgrains due to gradual shift from cultivation of food crops to fruit, cash crops and vegetables.
(v) With declining food production and increasing population may disrupt the future food security.
(vi) The food production in 2000-01 was 199 million tones (MT)

Question .24. What is the new technology in agriculture? Describe its significance in the development of Indian agriculture with three examples?
Answer : 
To achieve the goal of green revolution, there must be increase in production of food grains.This can be done by using high yielding variety of seeds, adopting modern methods of irrigation, large scale use of fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, electrification and mechanization.

Question .25. Name the two main food crops of India. Mention three major producing areas of each crop?
Answer : 
(i) Rice : – (a) West Bengal (b) Kerala (c) Punjab
(ii) Wheat : – (a) Punjab (b) Haryana (c) Uttar Pradesh

Question .26. What are millets? Why are millets very important food crops in India? Explain with the help of three points?
Answer : 
In India, the important millets grown are Jowar, Bajra and ragi. These crops rae grown in dry and warm area as it require very little rainfall. Its production is very high and value is low. It is consumed generally by our rural folk.

Question .27. “Wheat and Rice farming in India are fairly different from each other.” Explain with the help of four points?
Answer :
Wheat
Rice
1. It is a Rabi crop.
1. It is Kharif crop.
2. It is sown in the winter.
2. It is sown after the onset of monsoon.
3. It depends on the moisture of sub-soil.
3. It depends on the monsoon.
4. If there is light showers before harvesting, the yield is bumper.
4. During harvesting, weather must be dry.
5. It is grown in the areas where there is less than 100 cm of rainfall.
5. It is grown in the areas where there is rainfall above 100 cm.
6. It is grown in Punjab, Haryana, etc.
6. It is grown in West Bengal, Kerala, etc.
Question .28. “It is said that India produces almost every crop under the sun.” Explain this statement with four examples?
Answer : 
India is unique country for agriculture. It has a vast area of leveled land, rich soil, wide climate variations suited for various types of crops, ample sunshine and a long growing season.Wide variety of crops like Rice, Wheat, Tea, Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, etc. are grown in India.

Question .29. How is Rice farming different from Wheat farming in respect of the following?
(a) Sowing and harvesting time.
(b) Rainfall / irrigation requirements.
(c) Areal distribution.
(d) Yield per hectare.
Answer :
Rice
Wheat
1. It is sown with the onset of the monsoon i.e. June-July. Rainfall should be 100 cm or irrigation is necessary.
1. It is sown with the withdrawal of the monsoon i.e. November. Rainfall should be 50-75 cm or irrigation is necessary.
2. Harvesting is done in the month of October-November.
2. Harvesting is done in the month of March-April.
3. It is grown in West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh.
3. It is grown in Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh.
4. Yield per hectare is high.
4. Yield per hectare is low.
Question .30. Describe the various technological and institutional reforms, which led to Green and White revolutions in India?
Answer : Green Revolution.

(i) Technical inputs resulted in the green revolution in sixties and seventies of the twentieth century.
(ii) High yielding and early maturing variety of seeds have been used.
(iii) Instead of bio-fertilizers, chemical fertilizers are used.
(iv) Flooding of fields are replaced by drip irrigation and the use of sprinklers. White Revolution.
(i) The Dairy Development led to the white revolution or “Operation Flood”.
(ii) The dairy co-operation in the rural areas helped in rural development.
(iii) The National Milk Grid achieved Operation Flood.
(iv) Cross breed from foreign and native cattle have been developed.

Question .31. What steps should be done to improve the present state of agriculture in India?
Answer : 
(i) More and more use of high yielding and early maturing variety of seeds.
(ii) Large scale use of chemical fertilizers.
(iii) Bio-fertilizers as a supplement.
(iv) Improved irrigation facilities.
(v) Use of radio and television by farmers to know new improved techniques of agriculture.
(vi) Cosolidation of holdings of land.
(vii) Crop insurance.
(viii) Availability of loans.
(ix) Government should ensure minimum price for the crop.

Question Q.32. What is implied by ‘Operation Flood’? How can it supplement the meager income of the small and marginal farmers?
Answer : 
Operation Flood is another name given to White Revolution. Due to Green Revolution, India has become the largest producer of milk in the world. The Dairy development has contributed to household nutritional security and increase in income. The progress in this field has resulted in the balanced development in the status of marginal farmers having livestock.